Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

ano_finnland7 index 0602 boreas2

Paeonia-Literatur W



Wagner, J. (1992). From Gansu to Kolding – The Expedition of J. F. Rock in 1925-1927 and the Plants Raised by Aksel Olsen – Dansk Dendrologisk Årsskrift X: 19-87.

Wagner, J. (1993). Letter in The Garden 118 (4): 176.




Wallich — Nathaniel Wallich, 1786-1854, England


Wallich, N.W. 1831, Catalog no. 4727 ,


Wallich, 1868, Paeonia emodi. Himalayan Peony, Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Tab. 5719t. 5719 ;

Wallich (or Hooker?) 1882 Paeonia wittmanniana. Native of the Caucasus and Armenia, Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Tab. 6645

Walpers,1848,Ann. 1, 14

Walter, K.S. & al. (1995) Catalogue of Plants : 243-245, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh

WaltersJL,1942,Distribution of structural hybrids in Paeonia californica,Am J Botany 29:270-275

WaltersJL,1952,Heteromorphic chromosome pairs in Paeonia californica,Am J Botany 39: 145-151

Wang, Chi-Wu, 1961, The forests of china with a survey of grassland and desert vegetation. pub. Maria Moors Cabot Foundation, Harvard university (Special publication No. 5), Petersham, Mass. USA in english. Library of Congress Catalog card. No. 61.11934

Wang, H., van Staden, J. : Establishment of in vitro cultures of tree peonies South African journal of animal science = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir veekunde V67(2):358-361 2001

Wang H, Wei W, Wang NP, Wu CY, Yan SX, Yue L, Zhang LL, Xu SY. Effects of total glucosides of peony on immunological hepatic fibrosis in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Apr 14;11(14):2124-9. [Abstract: To study the effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) on immunological hepatic fibrosis induced by human albumin in rats. METHODS: Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into: Normal group, model group, TGP (60 and 120 mg/kg) treatment groups and colchicines (0.1 mg/kg) treatment group. On the day before the rats were killed, those in TGP or colchicine groups received TGP or colchicine as above from the first day of tail vein injection of human albumin. The rats in normal and model groups were only administered with the same volume of vehicle. At the end of the 16th wk, rats in each group were killed. Blood and tissue specimens were taken. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), nitric oxide (NO), content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), were measured by biochemical methods. Serum procollagen type III (PC III) and laminin (LN) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Liver collagen level was determined by measuring hydroxyproline content in fresh liver samples. Hepatic tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined under a light microscope. RESULTS: Histological results showed that TGP improved the human albumin-induced alterations in the liver structure, alleviated lobular necrosis and significantly lowered collagen content. The antifibrotic effect of TGP was also confirmed by decreased serum content of LN and PCIII in TGP-treated group. Moreover, the treatment with TGP effectively reduced the hydroxyproline content in liver homogenates. However, the level of ALT and AST increased in fibrotic rat but had no significance compared with normal control, whereas the ratio of A/G decreased without significance. TGP had no effect on level of ALT, AST and the ratio of A/G. Furthermore, TGP treatment significantly blocked the increase in MDA and NO, associated with a partial elevation in liver total antioxidant capacity including SOD and GSH-px. CONCLUSION: TGP has beneficial effects on hepatic fibrosis in rats by inhibition of collagen synthesis and decreasing oxidative stress.] Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, Anhui Province, China. Click here to read full conplete article.

Wang H & van StadenJ Seedling establishment characteristics of Paeonia ostii var. lishizhenii (pp. 382 - 385)  [H Wang, Present address: College of Plant Sciences, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China, e-mail: hfwang@bjfu.edu.cn J van Staden, Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Botany and Zoology, University of Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa [Abstract The viability of Paeonia ostii var. lishizhenii seed used in this investigation was around 85% when tested under optimum conditions of tissue culture. Seedling establishment embodied radicle protrusion and breaking of epicotyl dormancy. The seed coat, an endosperm extract, and GA3 significantly influenced embryo emergence. The seed coat is not an appreciable barrier to water uptake but exhibited a degree of mechanical resistance. Both the coat and endosperm extract inhibited germination. Removal of the radicle end of the testa and soaking in GA3 (100–200mgl-1) promoted radicle growth at 15ºC. Epicotyl dormancy was broken by soaking seeds in GA3 or maintaining excised embryos on Woody Plant Medium containing 1mgl-1 GA3. Chilling at 5ºC for 30 days was required to break epicotyl dormancy of emerged embryos. The seed structures surrounding the embryos impose mechanical and chemical restraints on germination. The embryo itself appears to be lacking growth promoters as exogenous GA3 promoted epicotyl growth. South African Journal of Botany 2002, 68: 382–385]

Wang Jianguo & Zhang Zuoshuang. Herbaceous Peonies of China, ISBN 7 5038 3961 9.

Wang, L.S., Hashimoto, F., Shiraishi, A., Aoki, N., Li, J.j., Shimizu, K., Sakata, Y. : Phenetics in Tree Peony Species from China by Flower Pigment Cluster Analysis JOURNAL OF PLANT RESEARCH 114(1115):213-222 2001 [Abstract: Petal pigment compositions were used as markers to study the phenetic relationships among seven wild tree peony species of Paeonia section Moutan DC. (fifteen accessions) from China. As the pigment markers, five anthocyanins together with three flavone and three flavonol aglycones were used. Principal component analysis (PCA) provided five eigenvectors from nineteen pigment patterns, in which peonidin and cyanidin as well as the types of glycosides greatly influenced the first factor, Z1. The Euclidean distances of standardized values obtained by eigenvector matrices with five factors (Z1 to Z5) produced a dendrogram in Ward's minimum variance cluster analysis, which showed good agreement with a classification based on the morphological characteristics of two subsections Vaginatae F.C. Stern and Delavayanae F.C. Stern. The results obtained by PCA and clustering qualify a chemical classification of section Moutan using secondary metabolites, specifically flower pigments, as taxonomic markers.] online available under: [link]

Wang LS, Hashimoto F, Shiraishi A, Aoki N, Li JJ, Sakata Y. Chemical taxonomy of the Xibei tree peony from China by floral pigmentation. J Plant Res. 2004 Feb;117(1):47-55. Epub 2003 Dec 18. [Abstract: Petal flavonoid compositions of 39 tree peony cultivars from Xibei (northwest China) were investigated in order to study the chemotaxonomic relationship among tree peony species. Six anthocyanins, the 3- O-glucosides and 3,5-di- O-glucosides of three anthocyanidins-pelargonidin (Pg), cyanidin (Cy), and peonidin (Pn)-exist in petals without a blotch at the base. The flowers are classified into three anthocyanidin phenotypes: 'Pn, Pg>Cy'; 'Pn, Cy'; and 'Pn, Cy>Pg'. Furthermore, the yellow pigments are identified as three flavones and three flavonols: apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol, and kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin, respectively. Ward's minimum-variance cluster analysis with principal component analysis produced a dendrogram using standardized scores of 20 pigment variables. Of 39 cultivars, 11 clustered with white flowered Paeonia rockii and 17 with pink flowered P. rockii. The other 11 cultivars matched either P. delavayi or P. potaninii. The result suggests that the Xibei tree peony originated mainly from P. rockii.] Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan. Click here to read, click here for local copy html-file .

Wang Lianying 1997, Pictorial Record of Chinese Tree Peony Varieties - 213 pages · 400 color photos

Wang Lianying 1998, Chinese Tree Peony - The Peony Association Of China - 213 pages · 400 color photos · english edition of Pictorial Record of Chinese Tree Peony Varieties


Wang SQ; DuXR; LuHW; WangTL; LiH,1989, Experimental and clinical studies of "Shen Yan Ling" in treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis.,J-Tradit-Chin-Med. Jun; 9(2): 132-4

Wang WT , WangSH,1979, P. veitchii varleiocarpa + uniflora , Flora Rep Pop Sin Vol27 p56 & p603

Wang X. W. (1987) Paeoniaceae. In Anonymous: Flora of Anhui 2: 388-390. China Perspective , Publishing House, Beijing.

Wang X, Cheng C, Sun Q, Li F, Liu J, Zheng C. Isolation and purification of four flavonoid constituents from the flowers of Paeonia suffruticosa by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2005 May 20;1075(1-2):127-31. [Abstract: Four flavonoids, apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside have been isolated and purified for the first time from the flowers of Paeonia suffruticosa by high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-ethanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:0.25:5, v/v). Then, 5 mg apigenin-7-O-neohesperidoside, 4 mg luteolin-7-O-glucoside, 9 mg apigenin-7-O-glucoside and 2.5 mg kaempferol-7-O-glucoside could be obtained after injecting 40 mg sample and their purities were 94, 97, 97 and 96%, respectively. All these constituents were identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance.] Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, 19 Keyuan Street, Jinan, Shandong 250014, China.

Wang Y, Zhang L, Liu D. [Heavy metals accumulation in different parts of Paeonia ostii and soils at copper tailings yard] [Article in Chinese] Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2004 Dec;15(12):2351-4. [Abstract: The study on the heavy metals contamination of Paeonia ostii and soil at the copper tailings yard in Tongling City indicated that the soil of copper tailings yard was extremely barren, only with 1.1-3.4 g x kg(-1) organic mater (1/15 of normal soil), but the contents of its Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn were much higher. Cu and Cd contents were 587.43-1176.44 mg x kg(-1) and 3.08-5.16 mg x kg(-1), respectively, 5-10 times higher than the grade two of national environmental quality standard for soils. Cu, Cd and Pb contents in Paeonia ostii exceeded the standard of medicine-use plants. Especially in its root peel, Cu and Cd contents stood at 31.50-64.00 mg x kg(-1) and 0.98-1.45 mg x kg(-1), respectively, 1.6-3.6 times surpassing the standard, which meant that both Paeonia ostii and the soil had been severely polluted. There existed evident difference in the contents of heavy metals in different parts of Paeonia ostii. Stem, leaf and root peel had higher contents of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu. The accumulation factors of Zn and Cd were higher than those of Cu and Pb, but they were all smaller in root peel. ] College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, China. wybzl@tom.com

WatanabeH ,1997,Candidates for cognitive enhancer extracted from medicinal plants: paeoniflorin and tetramethylpyrazine,Behav Brain Res Feb;83(1-2):135-41



Watson 1908 Paeonia mlokosewitschii Curtis's Botanical Magazine, t. 8173

Webb — Philip Barker Webb, 1793-1854, Great Britain

Webb, P. B. 1831, Iter. Hisp. Paeonia officinalis lobata, p. 80 .

Webb ,1838, corallina russi

Wei L, 1999, Treatment of complications due to peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure with traditional Chinese medicine. ; J Tradit Chin Med, 1999 Mar

Weinard, Frederick Francis, 1893-

Weinard F.F.& H.B. Dorner. Peonies, single and Japanese : in the Illinois trail garden / by Urbana, Ill. : University of Illinois, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1938. p. 97-156 : ill. ; 23 cm.

Wendelbo, P, Amaryllidaceae, Amaryllidaceae, auctore P. WENDELBO, Gothenburg, No. 67/30. 1. 1970, Cont., Flora Iranica, FLORA DES IRANISCHEN HOCHLANDES UND DER UMRAHMENDEN GEBIRQE, PERSIEN, AFGHANISTAN, TEILE VON WEST-PAKISTAN, NORD-IRAQ, AZERBAIJAN, TURKMENISTAN, von, Univ.-Prof. Dr. KARL HEINZ RECHINGER, Erster Direktor des Naturhislorisdien Museums in Wien

Wender,1829, Flora, 12, i, Erg. 29 .

WENZEL DG, HASKELL AR. Pharmacological actions of Paeonia officinalis. J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm Assoc. 1952 Mar;41(3):162-4.

Westrich, Josh & Smithers, Sir Peter 1990, Strauchpäonien – (Tree peonies, in german language) 120 pages DuMont, ISBN 3-7701-2490-1

Wild, Gilbert H, & Son, Catalog 1971.

Wild,Sons,1998,Gilbert HWild & Sons LLC Daylilies, Iris, Peonies,Sarcoxie, Missouri 64862 USA

Wild AJ,1979,Peony Cultures,American Peony Society 75 Years p73

Wild, Allan J. (1990) Peony Culture. pp. 11-12 in: Kessenich, Greta M (Ed.) The American Hybrid Peony , American Peony Society , 250 Interlachen Road, Hopkins, MN 55343, 1990

Willdenow

Willdenow, C.L. 1800, L. Sp. PI. 2,1222 ,

Willdenow, C.L. 1809, Enum Hort. Berol. Paeonia p. 572

Willkomm — Heinrich Moritz Willkomm, 1821-1895, Österreich

Willkomm HM,1875,corallina varcambessedesi,Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 25, 113 ,

Willkomm HM,1876, Linnaea, 40, 133 (

Willkomm HM,1881-85, Ill Flora Hisp. Balear. 1, 104-105, t. 65, fig. B

Willkomm HM,1883,Illustrationes Florae Hispanicae Insularumque Balearium, 1, 104-106, t. 65.*,Gf. Wiltshear in, 1915, Journ. of Bot. 53, 372.

Willkomm HM, LangeJ,1880,cambessedessii,Prodromus Florae Hispancicae 3,975-976, Stuttgart

Wilmarth Larry & Wilmarth Judith (1999) Growing Peonies in Alaska . American Peony Society Bulletin 312, December 1999 pp. 22-24

Wilson — Ernest Henry Wilson, 1876-1930, England and United States, Explored in China.

Wilson EH, See Rehder, A., and Wilson, E. H. (1913).

Winogradowa Vestnik. Leningr. Univ. Paeonia anomala 9, 2, 27; (cit. nach Tolm.)

Winogradowa Opred. rast. Komi, Paeonia anomala p.181; (cit. nach Tolm.)

Winterholler BA,1976,Redkije rastenija Kasachstana, Paeonia p. 111. Izdatelstvo „Nauka“ ,Kazakhskoj S.S.R., Alma-Ata . Seltene Pflanzen von Kasachstan : Rare Plants of Kazakhstan (les plantes rares du Kazakhstan)

Wissing SE,1964,Breeding Herbaceous Peonies,American Peony Society 75 Years pp125-126

Wister, John Caspar, 1887-1982.

Wister JC 1948 Hybrid Yellow Tree Paeonies, Journal of the Royal Horticultural Ssociety Vol. 73, pp. 190 - 192.

Wister JC , WolfeHE,1955, The tree peonies. National Horticultural Magazine Vol. 34, p. 1-61, reprinted 1962 in Wister, J. C. (Ed.) The Peonies ,American Peony Society

Wister JC , WolfeHE,1962,Histories of the herbaceous peonies In: JCWister (ed) The peonies,Amer Hort Soc, Washington 2, DC p33-61

Wister JC (ed),1962,The Peonies. 2nd Printing 1995, American Peony Society

Wister JC & Wister, G.S. Botanical Classification and Description of the Species, pp. 12-31 in: Wister JC (ed),1962,The Peonies. 2nd Printing 1995, American Peony Society

Wister JC & Wister, G.S. The Early History of Peony Growing, pp. 32-34 in: Wister JC (ed),1962,The Peonies. 2nd Printing 1995, American Peony Society

Wister JC & Wister, G.S. The Early History of the American Peony Society pp. 34-38 in: Wister JC (ed),1962,The Peonies. 2nd Printing 1995, American Peony Society

Wister JC & Wister, G.S. Bibliography & List of Breeders, Growers, Nuerseries etc, pp. 132-137 in: Wister JC (ed),1962,The Peonies. 2nd Printing 1995, American Peony Society

Wister JC,1966,Some Notes on the Early History of the American Peony Society and how it Affected the Planting of two Pennsylvania Peony Collections,American Peony Society 75 Years pp168-169

Witte, Heinrich.Paeoniaceae - Paeonia tenuifolia Flora. Afbeeldingen en beschrijvingen van boomen, heesters, éénjarige planten, enz., voorkomende in de Nederlandsche tuinen Groningen, J.B. Wolters, (1868), plate 46. Chromolithograph by G. Severeyns after Abraham Jacobus Wendel (sheet 224 x 302 mm).

Wolfe HE,1967,The Mathematics of Hybridzing,American Peony Society 75 Years pp152-153



Woodville, William, 1794 A supplement to Medical botany, or, Part the second : containing plates with descriptions of most of the principal medicinal plants not included in the materia medica of the collegiate pharmacopoeias of London and Edinburgh : accompanied with a circumstantial detail of their medicinal effects, and of the diseases in which they have been successfully employed / by William Woodville ...Publisher: London : Printed and sold for the author by James Phillips ... , 1794. page 91-93 Paeonia, plate 247 = P. officinalis

Wordsdell WC,1908,The affinities of Paeonia,Journ Botany,46



Woroschilow W.N.,1966,Flora Sowjetskovo Dalnievo Wostoka,Moskwa, Izdatelstvo „Nauka“ deutsche Übersetzung: Flora des Sowjetischen Fernen Ostens, english translation: Flora of the Soviet Far East



Wu CF; 1985, [A review on the pharmacology of Paeonia lactiflora and its chemical components] Chung Yao Tung Pao, 1985 Jun



Wu HK, Sheu SJ,1996,Capillary electrophoretic determination of the constituents of paeoniae radix,Journ Chromatogr A Nov 8;753(1):139-46



Wu, Jingxu (1997) Most of World - Chinese Tree Peony . American Peony Society Bulletin 304, December 1997 p. 28 - 33.

Wu, Jinxu (1997) The Application of the Limitation of Flower Stem to Tree Peony. American Peony Society Bulletin 303, September 1997 pp. 13

Wu, Jinxu (1998) The Medical Value and the Growing and Processing Technology of Chinese Herbaceous Peony, American Peony Society Bulletin 306, June 1998 pp. 33-35

Wu, Jinxu, Thang Pingping, Wang Shuangin & Liu Huayue (1998) The Medical Value and the Growing and Processing Technology of Chinese Herbaceous Peony, American Peony Society Bulletin 307, September 1998 pp. 43-45



Wunderlich, R. 1966, Zur Deutung der eigenartigen Embryoentwicklung von Paeonia. Österreichische Botanische Zeitschrift. 113 (3-4) : 395-407 (Eng. summary)

Wu, S. H., Luo, X. D., Ma, Y. B., Hao, X. J., Wu, D. G: A new 24, 30-dinortriterpenoid from Paeonia delavayi. CHINESE CHEMICAL LETTERS 12(4):345-346 2001



Wu X, Wu G, Zhang W, Gu G, Sha S, Wang X. [Experiment on extraction, sulfonate of paeonol and its antibiotic effect on plant pathogen] [Article in Chinese] Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Nov;26(11):778-80. [Abstract: Paeonol contents in root barks, cores, stems and leaves of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr. from Nanling county, Anhui province were determined and paeonol was extracted with alcohol, acid alcohol and alkali alcohol. Sodium paeonol sulfonate was synthesized by treating paeonol with concentrated sulfuric acid and oleums, and its physicochemical properties were surveyed by HPLC, TLC, FTIR and UV. Antibiotic experiment on plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria showed that paeonol and sodium paeonol sulfonate had remarkably inhibitive effects on Xanthmonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, Pseudomonas solanacearum, Phyllosticta mali and Rhizoctonia solani. Paeonol and sodium paeonol sulfonate had antibiotic effect on maize sheath blight.] College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097.





Carsten Burkhardt's Web Project Paeonia - The Peony Library

ano_finnland7 index 0602 boreas2

Paeonia-Literatur W